Frequently asked Questions

  • How to calculate the amount of a coating I need to protect a facility from corrosion?

    With this dry film thickness on a perfectly smooth surface the theoretical spreading rate is calculated as follows:

    The practical rate is calculated by multiplying the theoretical spreading value by the corresponding loss factor:

    The loss factor for coating jobs is determined by a construction superintendant based on several factors:

    • The complexity of the surface to be painted

    Complex and small surfaces are virtually impossible to paint without losses, and this will increase the consumption well above the estimates.

    • Surface roughness

    A rough surface implies the existence of "a dead space", which will require more paint to fill it in than a smooth surface does. In the case of a thin film shop primer this creates the effect of a larger surface, resulting in greater paint consumption as the primer film is evenly distributed along the peaks and depressions of the rough surface.

    • Coating methods and conditions

    Losses due to atmospheric conditions, paint residues in the pump and hoses, insufficient skills of a painter, etc. lead to increased paint consumption.

    Example.  During application a 30% loss of materials results in 70% of the coating being transferred onto the surface.

  • What flame retardant material is best to use?
    When choosing a fire protection material there is always a lot of contributing factors that affect your choice. They include the fire resistance degree of a building, and fire endurance time, type of a construction element and its dimensions, operating conditions, etc. To select the most suitable fire protection material to meet your needs, please contact us by phone or send your email to
  • If I know the required dry film thickness how do I calculate wet film thickness which is to be measured with a comb?
    Calculating wet film thickness:

  • What is the difference between the standard (cellulose), hydrocarbon fires and hydrocarbon fire with a flame jet stream?
    Please watch a video clip called Standard and Hydrocarbon Combustion.
  • Are your fire protection materials for hydrocarbon fire certified whether in compliance with international standards?
    FIRETEX fire protection materials from the O3 Company have been all certified and approved of: UL 1709, Lloyd's Register, Det Norske Veritas, American Bureau of Shipping, NORSOK M-501 System 5a. O3 has extensive experience in implementing projects for protection of hazardous production facilities that are likely to develop fire according to the hydrocarbon curve. The list of facilities and information about them can be found in the Track Records section.
  • How does temperature affect coating formation?

    Too high a temperature during application can lead to dry spray, poor coating film formation and finally result in premature corrosion. 

    Too low a temperature will also have an adverse affect on substrate temperature leading to drying deceleration, solvent retention risks, sagging and, if two-component materials were used, this can lead to insufficient curing and, as a result, to an increased risk of adverse reactions (exudation / fogging of one or more components of paint, e.g. its curing agent, plasticizer, etc.) 

    This may result in insufficient corrosion resistance, deficient chemical resistance and poor adhesion of subsequent layers.

    For the environmental conditions required to apply O3 materials see the webpage of the product that interests you in the Materials section.

  • What equipment can be used to apply fire protection materials?
    Intumescent fire protection materials are applied by using airless spray devices. Fire protection materials with a 100% nonvolatile content are applied to protect against hydrocarbon fires by using equipment with separate feed components and preheating. The methods of O3 fire protection materials application are listed in the technical descriptions of the products. The data sheets can be found on the webpage of the product that interests you, in the Materials section.
  • What are the causes of reinforced concrete corrosion?
    Steel reinforcement of new concrete is protected because of an initial high pH (> 12) due to calcium hydroxide. Under the influence of the outdoor environment the pH value decreases over time due to the ongoing reaction between calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, which leads to the formation of calcium carbonate and water. This process is called "carbonization" or "carbonation," with an annual rate of 1- 4 mm depending on the aggressiveness of the environment.

    Different salts, chlorides speed up carbonation while maintaining a high level of humidity. These salts increase the corrosion rate and rust formation on fixtures, creating a highly conductive electrolyte medium. When concrete carbonation reaches the rebar cage and the concrete pH value falls below 9, water and oxygen begin to destroy the steel. Corrosion products may increase steel volume eightfold, which results in cracks and fissures developing in concrete, reinforcement destruction and, finally, in structural integrity problems.

    Reinforced concrete structures can be protected against carbonation and reinforcement corrosion by using coatings that protect them from water, carbon dioxide, chlorides and other salts.
  • How does the dew point impact coating quality?
    The dew point indicates humidity and possible condensation. If dew point of air exceeds that of a substrate the latter develops moisture condensation. The paint to be applied to the substrate with condensation will not have proper adhesion, except when using paints designed according to special formulations. O3 Coatings offers Dura-Plate 301W material that has no dew point restrictions. Thus, application of a coating to a substrate with condensation will result in poor adhesion, further peeling and, subsequently, premature corrosion. In order to comply with the technology of traditional coating materials application the substrate temperature should be at least 3°C above dew point.
  • What are the limitations on the use of thin-layer fire protection materials?

    Currently, there exists a set of rules called SP 2.13130.2012 with rev.1, as amended in October 23, 2013. “Fire protection systems. Ensuring fire resistance for facilities under protection.” Under p.5.4.3 of this document, it is necessary to use structural fire protection in buildings that have the first and second degrees of fire resistance in order to provide proper fire resistance to a building’s load-bearing elements responsible for its overall stability and geometric immutability in a fire. It is allowed to use thin-layer fire protection coatings in load-bearing steel structures in buildings of the first and second degrees of fire resistance for structural elements with a reduced metal thickness of not less than 5.8 mm to meet the R 53295 GOST standard. According to p. 3.6 of the R 53296 GOST standard with rev.1 as amended in 09.07.2014, constructive fire protection is a way of protecting structural elements from a fire by creating a heat-insulating layer of a fire retardant on the heated surface of an element. Structural fire protection includes thick-sprayed compositions, plasters, a facing of slab, sheet or other fire protection materials, including those on a frame, with air gaps, as well as a combination of these materials, including thin-layer intumescent coatings. 

    According to p. 3.3 of the SP 2.13130.2012 set of rules with rev.1, the use of a thin-layer fire protection coating (an intumescent coating, paint) is a way to protect structural units from fire by applying to the surface of a structure being heated some specially designed paint formulations with a dry layer thickness of not more 3 mm, which increases protection several times when heated.

  • What are shop primers?
    Sometimes they are called shop primers. These are special, very fast-drying primers designed for application as a very thin layer of 15-25 micron by using automatic equipment to protect steel plates and profiles during the production and assembly periods till the coating system has been fully applied.
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